Race/Ethnicity Bibliography

This is a starter bibliography of scholarship related to race/ethnicity in Greek and Roman antiquity (including some Early Christian and Medieval). From this, one can see the breadth and depth of scholarship being done over the last 40 year or so. It is not comprehensive and I will be continually updating it.

Jonathan Hsy is crowd-sourcing a growing bibliography on Race and Medieval Studies here.

For edited volumes on the subject, I have started to link to the full Table of Contents instead of listing chapters individually when possible. I have turned comments on for this page so that people can leave citations for works to be added.

Please visit TEACHING RACE AND ETHNICITY IN CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY for syllabi, modules, blogs, podcasts, and other popular articles.

Sub-Headings: Anthologies / Classical Scholarship /Reception

Primary Source Anthologies:

Kennedy, RF, CS Roy, and ML Goldman Race and Ethnicity in the Classical World: An Anthology of Primary Sources. Indianapolis: Hackett. 2013.

Kurht, A., ed. The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Empire. New York: Routledge USA, 2010.

Mveng, Engelbert. 2005. Greek Sources of African History: From Homer to Strabo. Karnak House.

Reinhold, M. ed. Jewish Life and Thought among Greeks and Romans: Primary Readings. Minneapolis: Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996.

Stern, Menahem. 1976. Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism. 3 vols. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Ethnic/Immigrant Associations in Antiquity--from Associations in the Graeco-Roman World: An Expanding Collection of Inscriptions, Papyri, and Other Sources in Translation

Bindman, D., H. Gates Jr, and K. Dalton, eds. 2010. The Image of the Black in Western Art: From the Pharoahs to the Fall of the Roman Empire. Vol. 1. Harvard University Press.

Bindman, David, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds. 2010. The Image of the Black in Western Art, Volume II: From the Early Christian Era to the “Age of Discovery.” 2 parts. Belknap.

Classical Scholarship:

Adams, C and R. Lawrence (eds.) Travel and Geography in the Roman Empire. London: Routledge, 2001.

Adler, E. 2011. Valorizing the Barbarians: Enemy Speeches in Roman Historiography. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Almagor, E., and J. Skinner, eds. Ancient Ethnography: New Approaches. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2012.

Althoff, Jochen. 1993. “Herodot und die griechische Medizin.” In Antike Naturwissenschaft und ihre Rezeption, edited by K. Döring und Georg Wöhrle, 1-16. Bamberg: Collibri.

Ameling, Walter. 2008. “Ethnography and Universal History in Agatharchides.” In East and West: Papers in Ancient History Presented to Glen W. Bowersock, edited by T. Corey Brennan and Harriet I. Flower, 13-59. Loeb Classical Monographs 14. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Amigues, Suzanne. 1996. “L’expédition d’Anaxicrate en Arabie occidentale.” Topoi Orient-Occident 6: 671-7.

Andrade, Nathanael. 2013. Syrian identity in the Greco-Roman World. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ash, Rhiannon, 2010. “Rhoxolani blues (Tacitus, Histories 1,79): Virgil’s Scythian ethnography revisited.” In Latin historiography and poetry in the early empire: generic interactions, edited by John F. Miller and Anthony John Woodman, 141-54. Mnemosyne. Supplementum 321. Leiden: EJ Brill.

Atherton, Catherine. 2000. Monsters and Monstrosity in Greek and Roman Culture. Bari: Levante.

Aujac, Germaine. 1993. Claude Ptolemée: astronome, astrologue, géographe; connaissance et representation du monde habité. Paris: Editions du CTHS.

Baba, K. 1984. “On Kerameikos In. I 388 (SEG XXII, 79): A Note on the Formation of Athenian Metic-Status.” Annual of the British School of Archaeology 79: 1-5.

Backhaus, Wilhelm. 1976. “Der Hellenen-Barbaren-Gegensatz und die Hippokratische Schrift Περι ἀέρων ὑδάτων τόπων.” Historia 25: 170-85.

Bacon, H. Barbarians in Greek Tragedy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961.

Bailey, L. K. 2016. The Religious Worlds of the Laity in Late Antique Gaul. Bloomsbury.

Bakewell, G. 2013. Aeschylus’ Suppliant Women: The Tragedy of Immigration. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Bakewell, G.  2009. “Forbidding Marriage: "Neaira" 16 and Metic Spouses at Athens.” Classical Journal 104: 97-109.

Bakewell, Geoff. 1999. “Lysias 12 and Lysias 31: Metics and Athenian Citizenship in the Aftermath of the Thirty.” Greece, Rome, and Byzantine Studies 40: 5-22. 

Bakewell, G.  1999b. “Eunous kai polei sôtérios/metoikos: Metics, Tragedy, and Civic Ideology.” Syllecta Classica 10: 43-64.

Bakewell, G.   1997. “μετοικία in the Supplices of Aeschylus,” Classical Antiquity 16: 209-28.

Balsdon, John P. V. D. 1979. Romans and Aliens. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Bar-Kochva, Bezalel. The image of the Jews in Greek literature: the Hellenistic Period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Barreto, Eric D. Ethnic negotiations: The function of race and ethnicity in Acts 16. Mohr Siebeck, 2010.

Barrett, C.E. Diversity within domestic cult: A contextual analysis of Egyptianizing terracotta figurines from Delos. Yale University, 2009.

Barrett, C.E. "Recontextualizing Nilotic Scenes: Interactive Landscapes in the Garden of the Casa dell’Efebo, Pompeii." American Journal of Archaeology 121, no. 2 (2017): 293-332.

Barrett, C.E. Egypt in Roman Visual and Material Culture. Oxford Handbooks Online. 2017.

Bartlett, J. ed. Jews in the Hellenistic and Roman cities. Routledge, 2002.

Beagon, M. The Elder Pliny on the Human Animal: Natural history, Book 7. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005. 

Benabou, M. 1975. “Monstres et Hybrides chez Lucrèce et Pline l’Ancien.” In Hommes et bêtes: Entretiens sur le Racisme, edited by L. Poliakov, 143-52. Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales and Mouton & Co.

Berzon, Todd. 2013. “Heresiology as Ethnography: Theorizing Christian Difference.” In Religious Competition in the Third Century C.E.: Jews, Christians, and the Greco-Roman Worlds, edited by Nathaniel DesRosiers, Jordan Rosenblum, and Lily Vuong, 179-91.Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht. 

Bianchetti, Serena, Michele Cataudella, and Hans-Joachim Gehrke, eds. Brill's Companion to Ancient Geography: The Inhabited World in Greek and Roman Tradition. Brill, 2015.

Bilde, P. et al, eds. 1992. Ethnicity in Hellenistic Egypt. Aarhus.

Blok, J.L. The Early Amazons: Modern and Ancient Perspectives on a Persistent Myth. Leiden: Brill. 1995.

Blok, Josine. 2009. “Gentrifying Genealogy: On the Genesis of the Athenian Autochthony Myth.” In Antike Mythen: Medien, Transformationen und Konstruktionen, edited by C. Walde and U. Dill, 251-75. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Boatwright, M. Peoples of the Roman World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. 

Boegehold, A. 1994. “Perikles’ Citizenship Law of 451/0 BC.” in Athenian Identity and 
Civic Ideology, edited by A. Boegehold and A. Scafuro, 57-66. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bowersock, Glen W. 1983. Roman Arabia. Cambridge, MA, London: Harvard University Press.

Boys-Stones, George. 2007. “Physiognomy and Ancient Psychological Theory.” In Swain 2007: 19-124.

Bradley, Mark 2009. Colours and Meaning in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Braund, D., ed. Scythians and Greeks: Cultural Interactions in Scythia, Athens, and the Early Roman Empire (Sixth Century BC–First Century AD). Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2005.

Braund, David. 1994. Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC – AD 562. Oxford: Clarendon.

Brakke, David. 2001. “Ethiopian Demons: Male Sexuality, the Black-Skinned Other, and the Monastic Self.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 10: 501-35.

Bridges, E. Imagining Xerxes: Ancient Perceptions of a Persian King. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015.

Brilliante, C. 1984. "L'invasione dorica oggi," QUCC 16: 173-85.

Brock, R. and S. Hodkinson, eds. 2002. Alternatives to Athens. Oxford University Press. 

Bruce, Scott. 2006. “Hagiography as Monstrous Ethnography: A Note on Ratramnus of Corbie’s Letter Concerning the Conversion of the Cynocephali.” In Insignis Sophiae Arcator: Assays in Honour of Michael W. Herren on his 65th Birthday, edited by Michael W. Herren, Gernot R. Wieland, Carin Ruff, and Ross Gilbert Arthur, 45-56. Turnhout: Brepols.

Buell, Denise Kimber. Why this new race: Ethnic reasoning in early Christianity. Columbia University Press, 2008.

Buell, Denise Kimber. "Race and universalism in early Christianity." Journal of Early Christian Studies 10 (2002): 429-468.

Buell, Denise Kimber. "Rethinking the relevance of race for early Christian self-definition." Harvard Theological Review 94, (2001): 449-476.

Buell, Denise Kimber, and Caroline Johnson Hodge. "The politics of interpretation: The rhetoric of race and ethnicity in Paul." Journal of Biblical Literature 123 (2004): 235-251.

Burkert, W. The Orientalizing Revolution. Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Burnstein, S. Ancient African Civilizations. Princeton: Markus Weiner, 1985.

Burstein, S. 1995. Graeco-Africana: Studies in the History of Greek Relations with Egypt and Nubia. New Rochelle.

Calame, C. “Uttering Human Nature by Constructing the Inhabited World: The Well-Tempered Racism of Hippocrates,” 135–56. In Masks of Authority: Fiction and Pragmatics in Ancient Greek Poetics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.

Carr, G. 2003. “Creolisation, Pidginisation and the Interpretation of Unique Artefacts in Early Roman Britain.” In G. Carr, E. Swift, and J. Weekes, eds., TRAC 2002: Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. Oxford: Oxbow. 113-125.

Cartledge, P. The Greeks: A Portrait of Self and Others. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

de Callataÿ, G. 1999/2000. “Oikoumene Hupouranios: Réflexions sur l’Origine et le Sens de la Géographie Astrologique.” Geographia antiqua 8/9: 25-69. 

Carawan, E. 2008. “Pericles the Younger and the Citizenship Law” Classical Journal 
104: 383-406.

Carey, C. 1991. “Apollodoros’ Mother: The Wives of Enfranchised Aliens in Athens,” 
Classical Quarterly 41: 84-9. 

Casson, Lionel. 1989. The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translation, and Commentary. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Chadwick, J. 1976. "Who were the Dorians?" PP 31: 103-17.

Champion, Tim, ed. Centre and periphery: comparative studies in archaeology. Routledge, 2005.

Chappuis-Sandoz, L. 2008. “La Survie des Monstres: Ethnographie Phantastique et Handicap à  Rome.” Latomus 67: 21-36.

Chiasson, Charles C. 2001. “Scythian Androgyny and Environmental Determinism in Herodotus and the Hippocratic peri aerōn hudatōn topōn.” Syllecta Classica. 12: 33-73.

Cifani, Gabriele, and Simon Stoddart. Landscape, ethnicity and identity in the Archaic Mediterranean area. Oxbow Books, 2012.

Cohen, B. Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art, Leiden: Brill, 2000. (chapters on Bousiris, Lydians, Thracians, Amazons, Etruscans, Persians).

Coleman, J., and C. Walz, eds. Greeks and Barbarians. Bethesda: CDL Press, 1997.

Colin, Frédéric. 2000. Les Peuples Libyens de la Cyrénaïque à l’Egypte d’après les Sources de l’Antiquité Classique. Bruxelles: Palais des Acad.

Connor, WR. 1993. "The Ionian era of Athenian civic identity," PAPS 137: 194-206.

Cunliffe, B. 1988. Greeks, Romans, and Barbarians: Spheres of Interaction. London: Batsford.

Dasen, Véronique. 1993. Dwarfs in Ancient Egypt and Greece. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dasen, Véronique. 1994. “Pygmaioi.” Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae. Zurich and Munich: Artemis Verlag. 7: 594-601.

Dee, J. “Black Odysseus, White Caesar: When Did ‘White People’ Become ‘White’?” Classical Journal 99 (2004): 157–67. 

Dench, E. From Barbarians to New Men. Oxford and New York. Oxford University Press. 1995.

Dench, E. Romulus' Asylum: Roman Identities from the Age of Alexander to the Age of Hadrian. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005. 

Derks, T., and N. Roymans, eds. Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity: The Role and Power of Tradition. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009. 

Dietler, Michael. "“Our ancestors the Gauls”: archaeology, ethnic nationalism, and the manipulation of Celtic identity in modern Europe." American anthropologist 96, no. 3 (1994): 584-605.

Dihle, Albrecht. 1964. “The Conception of India in Hellenistic and Roman Literature.” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 190, NS. 10: 15-24.

Doughtery, C. The Raft of Odysseus: The Ethnographic Imagination of Homer’s Odyssey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. 

Drews, Robert. 1973. The Greek Accounts of Eastern History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Drews, R. 1983. The coming of the Greeks: Indo-European conquests in the Aegean and Near East. Princeton.

duBuois, P. Centaurs and Amazons. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1996.

duBois, P. 2003. Slavery and Other Objects. Chicago.

duBois, P. 2010. Slavery: Antiquity and its Legacy. Oxford.

Dueck, D., H. Lindsay, and S. Pothecary, eds. Strabo’s Cultural Geography: The Making of a Kolossourgia. Cambridge University Press, 2005. 

Dueck, D. Geography in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Duncan-Jones, R. (1981) “Metic Numbers in Periklean Athens” Chiron 10: 101-109.

Edwards, Ruth B. 1979. Kadmos the Phoenician. A Study in Greek Legends and the Mycenaean Age. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert.

Eckardt, Hella, ed. Roman diasporas: archaeological approaches to mobility and diversity in the Roman Empire.  Journal of Roman Archaeology 78, 2010.

Eliav-Feldon, M., B. Isaac, and J. Ziegler, eds. The Origins of Racism in the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. 

Elwyn, Sue. 1993. “Interstate Kinship and Roman Foreign Policy.” Transactions of the American Philological Association 123: 261-86.

Ergin, Gürkan. 2008. “Geography-Human Relationships in Ancient Sources: Some Remarks on Geopolitics and Environmental Determinism.” In EUERGETES: Festschrift für Prof. Dr. Haluk Abbasoğluzum 65. Geburtstag, edited by Yayına Hazırlayanlar, 449-62. Antalya: Suna-İnan Kıraç Akdeniz Medeniyetleri Araştırma Enstitüsü.

Erickson, B., 2002. "Falling masts, rising masters: The ethnography of virtue in Caesar's account of the Veneti." American journal of philology, 123: 601-22.

Evans, Elizabeth. 1969. Physiognomics in the Ancient World. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 59.5.

Evans, R. “Searching for Paradise: Landscape, Utopia, and Rome.” Arethusa 36 (2007): 285-307.

Evans, R. “Ethnography’s Freak Show: the Grotesque at the Edges of the Roman Earth.” Ramus 28 (1999): 54-73.

Farney, Gary D. Ethnic identity and aristocratic competition in Republican Rome. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Feldman, L. Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World. Princeton University Press. 1993.

Ferris, Iain. 2000. Enemies of Rome: Barbarians through Roman Eyes. Stroud: Sutton.

Ferris, I. M. 1994. “Insignificant Others: Images of Barbarians on Military Art from Roman Britain.” In S. Cottam, D. Dungworth, S. Scott and J. Taylor, eds., TRAC 94: Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, Durham 1994. Oxford: Oxbow. 24-31.

Fletcher, K., 2014. Finding Italy: Travel, Nation, and Colonization in Vergil's Aeneid. University of Michigan Press.

Flower, M. “Herodotus and Persia.”  In The Cambridge Companion to Herodotus, edited by C. Dewald and J. Marincola, 274-289. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Flower, M. 2003. “Pelasgians.” In Poetry, Theory, Praxis. The Social Life of Myth, Word and Image in Ancient Greece, edited by Eric Csapo and Margaret C. Miller, 2-18. 

Foulkes, M. “Livy's characterization of Individuals and Races in Book 21.” Histos 3 (1999): 70-76.

Fraser, P.  2009. Greek Ethnic Terminology. Oxford University Press.

Galton, D. “Greek Theories on Eugenics.” Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (1998): 263-267.

Garland, R. The Eye of the Beholder: Deformity and Disability in the Graeco-Roman World. 2nd ed. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2010.

Geary, Patrick. 1999. “Barbarians and Ethnicity.” In Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, edited by G. W. Bowersock, Peter Brown, and Oleg Grabar, 107-29. Cambridge,  MA: Belknap Press.

Georges, Pericles. 1994. Barbarian Asia and the Greek Experience. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.

Gillespie, C. Boudica: Warrior Woman of Britain. Oxford University Press. forthcoming.

Goldenberg, David. 1998. “Scythian-Barbarian: The Permutations of a Classical Topos in Jewish and Christian Texts of Late Antiquity.” Journal of Jewish Studies 49: 87-102.

Goldenberg, David. 2005. The Curse of Ham. Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Graves-Brown, Paul, Siân Jones, and Clive S. Gamble, eds. Cultural identity and archaeology: the construction of European communities. Routledge, 2013.

Gray, Vivienne. 1995. “Herodotus and the Rhetoric of Otherness.” American Journal of Philology 116.2: 185-211.

Gruca-Macaulay, Alexandra. Lydia as a Rhetorical Construct in Acts. SBL Press, 2016.

Gruen, E. “Did Ancient Identity Depend On Ethnicity? A Preliminary Probe.” Phoenix 67 (2013): 1-22.

Gruen, E. Re–thinking the Other in Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. 

Gruen, E., ed.  Cultural Identity in the Ancient Mediterranean. Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2011.

Gruen, E. ed. Cultural Borrowings and Ethnic Identity in the Ancient Mediterranean. Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2005.

Gruen, E. Diaspora: Jews Amidst Greeks and Romans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Gruen, Erich. 1998. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: U of California.

Habinek, Thomas N. The politics of Latin literature: writing, identity, and empire in ancient Rome. Princeton University Press, 2001.

Hales, Shelley, and Tamar Hodos, eds. Material culture and social identities in the ancient world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Haley, S.P., 2009. "Be not afraid of the dark: Critical race theory and classical studies." Prejudice and Christian beginnings: Investigating race, gender, and ethnicity in early Christian studies. 27-49.

Hall, E. M. Inventing the Barbarian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Hall, J. Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Hall, J. Hellenicity: Between Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2002.

Hannestad, Niels. 1986. Roman Art and Imperial Policy. Århus, Denmark: Aarhus UP.

Hardwick, L. 1990. “Ancient Amazons – Heroes, Outsiders or Women?” Greece and Rome 37.1: 14-36.

Harrell, Sarah E. 2003. “Marvelous Andreia: Politics, Geography, and Ethnicity in Herodotus’ Histories.” In Studies in Manliness and Courage in Classical Antiquity, edited by Manfred Horstmanshoff, 77-94. Leiden: EJ Brill.

Harrill, Albert J. 2014. “Ethnic Fluidity in Ephesians.” New Testament Studies 60:379-402. 

Harrison, T. ed. Greeks and Barbarians. New York: Routledge USA, 2002.

Harrison, T. Writing Ancient Persia. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2011. 

Harrison, Thomas. 1998. “Herodotus’ Conception of Foreign Languages.” Histos 2.

Hartog, F. “Imaginary Scythians: Space and Nomadism.” In Oxford Readings in Herodotus, vol. 2., edited by R. Munson, 245ff. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013. (Translation from French of the original, 1979 article).

Hartog, F. The Mirror of Herodotus. Translated by Janet Lloyd. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Heather, Peter. 1999. “The Barbarian in Late Antiquity: Image, Reality, andTransformation.” In Constructing Identities in Late Antiquity, edited by Richard Miles, 234-258. London: Routledge. 

Heit, Helmut. "Western Identity, Barbarians and the Inheritance of Greek Universalism." The European Legacy 10: 725–739, 2005.

Hengel, M. Jews, Greeks and Barbarians: Aspects of the Hellenization of Judaism in the Pre-Christian Period. SCM Press. 1980.

Herring, Edward. 2009. “Ethnicity and Culture.” In A Companion to Ancient History, edited by
Andrew Erskine, 123-133. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Hingley, Richard. Globalizing Roman culture: unity, diversity and empire. Routledge, 2005.

Hingley, R. and C. Unwin. 2005. Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Hambledon and London.

Holleran, C. and A. Pudsey, eds. 2011. Demography and the Graeco-Roman World: New Insights and Approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hooker, James T. 1979. “New Reflexions on the Dorian Invasion.” Klio 61: 353-60.

Huang, Yang. 2010. “Invention of Barbarian and Emergence of Orientalism: Classical Greece.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37: 556-66.

Huskinson, Janet. Experiencing Rome: culture, identity and power in the Roman Empire. Routledge, 2013.

Isaac, B. “Proto-racism in Graeco-Roman Antiquity.” World Archaeology (2006) 38: 32-47.

Isaac, B. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2004.

Iverson Erik. 1993. The Myth of Egypt and the Hieroglyphs in European Tradition. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

Johnson, Aaron. 2006. Ethnicity and Argument in Eusebius’ Praeparatio Evangelica. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Johnson, J. ed. 1992. Life in a Multi-Cultural Society: Egypt from Cambyses to Constantine and Beyond. Chicago. 

Jones, Christopher J. 1999. Kinship Diplomacy in the Ancient World. Cambridge: Harvard UP.

Jones, Siân. The archaeology of ethnicity: constructing identities in the past and present. Psychology Press, 1997.

Just, Roger. 1989. "Triumph of the Ethnos." In History and ethnicity, edited by E. Tonkin, M. McDonald, and M. Chapman, 71-88. Routledge.

Kaldellis, Anthony. Hellenism in Byzantium: the transformations of Greek identity and the reception of the classical tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Kamen, D. 2013. Status in Classical Athens. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Kamtekar, R. "Distinction Without a Difference? Race and Genos in Plato," in Philosophers on Race: Critical Essays, edited by Ward and Lotts, 1-13. 

Karttunen, Klaus. 1984. “Kynokephaloi and Kynomolgoi in Classical Ethnography." Arctos 18: 31-6.  

Karttunen, Klaus. 1989. India in Early Greek Literature. Helsinki: Finnish Oriental Society.

Karttunen, Klaus. 1997. India and the Hellenistic World. Helsinki: Finnish Oriental Society.

Kennedy, RF. “Hippocrates at the Fair: Ancient Theories of Ethnicity and Ethnographic Showcases at 19th century American World’s Fairs.” In Classics and Early Anthropology: A Companion, edited by E. Varto. Leiden: Brill, forthcoming.

Kennedy, RF Immigrant Women in Athens: Gender, Ethnicity, and Citizenship in Classical Athens. Routledge. 2014. 

Kennedy, RF. 2013. “A Tale of Two Kings: Competing Aspects of Power in Aeschylus’ Persians.” Ramus 42: 64-88.

Kennedy, RF. and M. Jones-Lewis, eds. Identity and the Environment in the Classical and Medieval Worlds. London and New York: Routledge, 2016.

Kolendo, Jerzy. 2005. “Origines Antiques des Débats Modernes sur l’Autochthonie.” In Histoire, Espaces et Marges de l’Aniquité. Hommages à Monique Clavel Lévêque. 4 Besançon: Presses Universitaires Franc-Comtoises.

Komorowska, J. 2004. “Under the Sign of Aries: the Nile, the Zodiac, and a Roman Poet.” Mene 4: 163-70.

Kosmin, Paul J. 2014. The Land of the Elephant Kings. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kühr, Angela. 2006. Als Kadmos nach Boiotien kam. Polis und Ethnos im Spiegel thebanischer Gründungsmythen. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.

Kuhrt, Amelie and Susan Sherwin-White. 1987. Hellenism in the East: The Interaction of Greek and Non-Greek Civilizations from Syria to Central Asia after Alexander. London.

Laird, A. G. 1933. “Herodotus on the Pelasgians in Attica.” American Journal of Philology 54: 97-119.

Lape, S. 2003. "Racializing Democracy: The Politics of Sexual Reproduction in Classical Athens." Parallax 9: 52-63.

Lape, S. Race and Citizen Identity in the Classical Athenian Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Larson, Stephanie L. 2007. Tales of Epic Ancestry. Boiotian Collective Identity in the Late Archaic and Early Classical Periods. Historia Einzelschrift, Heft 197. Stuttgart: FranzSteiner Verlag.Lassen, Christian. 1874. Indische Altertumskunde. Leipzig: L. A. Kitter. 

Leach, Stephany, H. Eckardt, Carolyn Chenery, G. Müldner, and M. Lewis. "A Lady of York: migration, ethnicity and identity in Roman Britain." Antiquity 84, no. 323 (2010): 131-145.

Leach, Stephany, Mary Lewis, Carolyn Chenery, Gundula Müldner, and Hella Eckardt. "Migration and diversity in Roman Britain: a multidisciplinary approach to the identification of immigrants in Roman York, England." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 140 (2009): 546-561.

Leão, Delfim. 2012. “The Myth of Autochthony, Athenian Citizenship and the Right of Enktesis: A Legal Approach to Euripides’ Ion.” In Akten der Gesellschaft für Griechische und Hellenistische Rechtsgeschichte, edited by E. Cantarella, et al. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Vol. 23: 135-52.

Lecouteux, Claude. 1981. “Les Cynocéphales: Études d’une Tradition Tératologique de 
l’Antiquité au XIIe siècle.” Cahier de Civilisations Médiévales 24: 117-28.

Lee-Stecum, Parshia. 2008. “Roman refugium: refugee narratives in Augustan versions of Roman prehistory.” Hermathena 184: 69-91.

Leigh, Matthew. 2000. “Lucan and the Libyan Tale.” The Journal of Roman Studies 90: 95-109.

Lenfant, Dominique. 1995. “L’Inde de Ctésias: Des Sources aux Représentations.” Topoi 5: 309-36.

Lenfant, Dominique.  1999. “Monsters in Greek Ethnography and Society in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries BCE”.  In R. Buxton, ed, From Myth to Reason? Studies in the Development of Greek Thought, 197-214. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Lenfant, Dominique.  2002. “Le Vin dans les Stéréotypes Ethniques des Grecs (Du Rôle de la Norme en Ethnographie).” In Vin et Santé en Grèce Ancienne, edited by J. Jouanna and L. Villard, 67-84. Bulletin de Corresponance Hellénique Supp. 40.

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